Tag Archive: Rhesus monkeys


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By Sharon St Joan

 

India has the most enlightened animal welfare laws in the world. For example, cow slaughter is illegal in all but two states. Municipalities are responsible for running and paying for spay/neuter programs for community dogs and cats. Sports hunting is illegal throughout India. These laws have been enacted over the past fifty years. The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 provides strict protection for all wildlife.

 

But, sadly, all this may be about to change! The Minister of Forests and the Environment, Prakash Jevadekar, is energetically seeking to roll back all the hard-fought protections for wild animals. He has sought to reintroduce bullock cart racing after it was recently banned in Maharashtra, and last year, he announced that the laws against jallikattu (bull fighting) in Tamil Nadu could be ignored with impunity. He has allowed peacocks in Goa to be killed and has suggested that it would be a good idea to bring back sports hunting. Dissection has been banned in Indian schools, and now the Minister wants the ban lifted.

 

The greatest damage done so far has been the recent shooting deaths of 200 nilgai (blue bulls) in Bihar, in northeast India, and the killing of Rhesus monkeys in Himachal Pradesh – and the imminent threat to other protected species, specifically wild boar.

 

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Prakash Jevadekar, whose responsibility it is to ensure that India’s wildlife are protected, has written to a number of Indian states requesting that they send to him a list of animals they consider a “nuisance” so that measures may be taken against the animals. Five states responded; as a consequence, the wild animals in question have now been officially labeled “vermin,” and their lives are now at risk.

 

Dr. Chinny Krishna, Vice Chairman of the Animal Welfare Board of India, explained some of the legal technicalities. There is a provision in the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 to allow for the killing, in rare instances, for a very limited period of time, of wildlife that pose a dire threat to human beings or to crops. This is meant to be used only as a last resort, and there are a number of non-lethal measures that are required to be taken first; such as fencing or re-location of the wildlife or population control by chemical sterilants.

 

In addition, there are already in effect systems to pay farmers for the loss of crops.

 

Dr. Krishna noted that the Ministry of Forests and the Environment actually requested that lists of “nuisance” animals be sent to him by the states, which goes against the intent of the Wildlife Protection Act, and secondly, non-lethal means to prevent wildlife conflicts were not employed first.

 

Humane Society International will be filing a case with the Indian Supreme Court. The Animal Welfare Board of India will be sending a letter to notify the Environment Ministry of what it sees as violations of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.

 

The actions by the Environment Ministry are highly unusual and uncharacteristic of the compassion normally shown by Indian authorities towards the wildlife of India.

 

What makes this situation especially urgent is that, as Dr. Krishna put it, “Once the door is opened to killing wildlife indiscriminately, it’s hard to shut the door again.” Allowing these illegal actions to stand would jeopardize the lives of so many innocent animals – and would threaten the entire animal protection system in India, a structure that has been put into place over five decades, through exhaustive work on the part of dedicated animal groups and individuals. Allowing the collapse of the wildlife laws would also send a terrible signal to the rest of Asia and ultimately, the world – at a time when wildlife trafficking is out of control and many wild species are heading toward the cliff of extinction, especially in Asia and Africa, but also throughout the world. It is a global problem.

 

We can all act to help these animals – the nilgai (blue bulls), the Rhesus monkeys, the wild boars, and all the rest of India’s wildlife, now under threat. It’s important to note that significant efforts have been made recently by Prime Minister Modi’s government to have closer, friendlier ties with the U.S. and with other countries outside India. In your email or tweet, please identify yourself as an American (or other nationality) and please do not be shy about including your profession. It’s important to make the point that people in all countries are deeply concerned about what is happening to the animals of India. Tigers, elephants, Rhesus monkeys and all of India’s wild animals are some of the most beautiful and most beloved wild animals on earth. It will be a tragedy if we fail to stand up for them.

 

 

How you can help

 

Please tweet Prime Minister Modi at @PMOIndia

 

Sample tweet (Please make relevant changes): @PMOIndia As an American writer, I am shocked at the killing of India’s nilgai and monkeys. A new MoEF Minister is needed to save wildlife!

 

To email Prime Minister Modi, click here.

http://www.pmindia.gov.in/en/interact-with-honble-pm/

Then click on “Write to the Prime Minister.”

 

Sample email (Please change the wording to personalize this):

 

Dear Prime Minister Modi,

 

The recent actions of the Minister of the MoEF, Prakash Jevadekar, causing the deaths of 200 nilgai, as well as peacocks in Goa, and Rhesus monkeys in Himachal Pradesh are very alarming. India holds a unique place in the world as a country whose reverence for animals is a timeless tradition at the center of Hinduism. This senseless killing of India’s beautiful wildlife is indefensible, illegal, and a betrayal of Indian culture. Please replace Prakash Jevadekar with someone who values “ahimsa” and who represents the best of India, not the worst. Thank you.

Respectfully,

Your name.

 

Photo credits

 

Top photo: Aiwok / Wikimedia Commons / This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license. / Rhesus Macaque with two babies in Shimla Himachal Pradesh near the Jakhu temple.

 

 Second photo: Khokosz / Wikmedia Commons / This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

 

 

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By Sharon St Joan

 

This is one of a series of stories about the early days of the animal welfare movement in India.

 

In March 1978, the Illustrated Weekly of India published an article by Nanditha Krishna, “Slaughter for Science,” about laboratory experiments on animals that were being carried out in India.

 

Nanditha Krishna had gained access to the King Laboratory in Chennai simply by calling them up, explaining that she was working on an article about animal research in laboratories, and asking if she might come by to learn more about the scientific work they were doing. She spent a couple of days at the laboratory. She expressed interest in their work, and they were cordial.

 

The article she wrote contained real and graphic examples of research on animals, from King laboratory and many other sources, as well as statements by medical authorities.

 

It began with Dr. Krishna’s own experience as a schoolgirl in which their class performed dissection on frogs who had been ineffectively euthanized with chloroform, so the experiment was cruel. She described it as being an unnecessary and useless waste of life.

 

Professor Lawson Tait, one of the ablest of British surgeons was quoted as saying, “I do not believe that vivisection has helped the surgeon one bit, but I know that it has often led him astray.”

 

A law in 1876 had been enacted to regulate the use of vivisection in Britain; this, in effect, meant that the law allowed it to continue to take place. Dr. Krishna also pointed out, on a positive note, that Britain was the first nation in which organized groups fought against cruelty to animals.

 

India continued the British tradition of performing animal experiments. In 1953, a Bill for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was introduced into the Indian Parliament by Rukmini Devi Arundale, an early animal advocate who used her fame as an Indian classical dancer to promote the cause of animal welfare. A committee was then set up to control and supervise experiments. The committee, however, in the beginning, was made up almost entirely of the heads of laboratories that experimented on animals, so, in practice, it did nothing except to reassure the public that these experiments were necessary for the advance of scientific knowledge.

 

Dr. Krishna wrote, “The majority of experiments, particularly those done in India, are repetitious and serve no purpose.” She then outlined a number of experiments performed with excessive cruelty, which were unnecessary and repetitious.

 

Without going into the graphic details of these experiments, the first mentioned was an experiment on fifteen dogs to study the effects of blood loss; the results of this experiment had already been discovered earlier by another vivisector, Mr. Morowitz. Dr. Krishna pointed out that one could easily reach the same conclusion by visiting the casualty ward of any hospital.

 

Six healthy male buffalo calves were exposed to another similar experiment, with similar results.

 

In virtually every experiment involving lab animals anywhere in the world, the animals are killed so that the dead animals can be studied and the results tabulated.

 

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In a district in West Bengal, 105 birds and 121 rodents were captured from the wild and experimented on to determine whether or not they were involved in spreading the Japanese encephalitis virus. It was concluded that they were not involved. Dr. Krishna asked, “Was such mass slaughter necessary to find that out?”

 

31 rabbits and 8 monkeys were sacrificed to study the effect of methanol poisoning in order to understand how the alcohol produced by bootleggers effects human beings. Noting that a great many instances of humans drinking bootleg liquor were available, Dr. Krishna observed that “all the symptoms have been amply studied and analyzed, and a sufficient number of humans have been sacrificed.”

 

Ten adult male dogs were subjected to an experiment to study the effect of blocking the blood supply. Like a number of the experiments cited, this one was described in the Indian Journal of Medical Research. Dr. Krishna wrote, “Any child could tell you what would happen if the blood supply to any part of the body was cut off. Why submit the animals to such indignity and pain? Was it merely to satisfy someone’s curiosity? Or is it to justify the receipt of large grants for research in science and medicine?”

 

The British Medical Officer Dr. George Wilson, LLD, was quoted as saying that animal experiments are “inherently misleading in their application to man, and, therefore, always more or less unreliable.”

 

In an experiment to study the brain, twenty-nine cats and thirteen monkeys, all fully conscious, were implanted with electrodes. Then various areas of their brains were stimulated to cause them to become fearful and violent – or quiet and passive. The conclusion reached was that it was important to understand “the physiology of the limbic system.” Dr. Krishna commented, “What a ghastly way of going about it!”

 

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Dr. Krishna noted that the greatest suffering was being borne by Rhesus monkeys, because of their similarity to humans – who were being captured in the wild and exported to foreign countries for laboratory experiments abroad. They were transported in horrible conditions, and most of them died on the way. Those that survived met an even worse and more prolonged fate.

 

Dr. Krishna mentioned that these kinds of experiments are carried out in many countries, including the UK and the US; however, “two wrongs do not make a right,” and “Cruelty elsewhere does not justify its existence here [in India].”

 

Immediately after this article came out, there was a huge furor in India. So many people had never realized or had never stopped to think of the cruelty involved in animal experiments, and suddenly this harsh, shocking reality had been brought to light. Here, I have left out the graphic details that reveal the suffering experienced by the animals, but they were quite clear in the original article.

 

The idea that innocent forest animals, Rhesus monkeys in particular, were being snatched from their natural homes and sent abroad in horrifying conditions to undergo a life of pain in laboratories was too much for Indian authorities to contemplate. Within a week following the article by Dr. Nanditha Krishna, all export of Rhesus monkeys out of India was halted, and it has never resumed.

 

On a personal note, I was in New York City in 1978 when I read in the newspaper that India had stopped all capture in the wild and shipping of Rhesus monkeys out of the country for use in foreign laboratories.

 

I recall being struck by a sense of profound admiration for the Indian people who had brought about this result. Finally, someone somewhere in the world had stood up to the entrenched brutality and insensitivity that, in the name of modern science, disregards the lives and well-being of innocent wild animals. Indian people had simply refused to provide any more of their native species to be gobbled up by this vast, arrogant machine.

 

Wondering who had achieved this, I knew nothing about the article that had been published or how this had come about, and assumed I would most likely never know. Little did I realize that, over thirty years later, these people would cross my path, and I would be blessed to know them well as close friends.

 

The stopping of the export of Rhesus monkeys is only one aspect of animal laboratory experiments, and sadly, other experiments do still continue in India. In fact, western pharmaceutical companies often outsource laboratory experiments to India and to other developing countries, so it is an ongoing situation. Dr. Nanditha Krishna, and her husband, Dr. Chinny Krishna who is one of the foremost leaders of the Indian animal welfare movement, along with many other courageous animal advocates across India, continue to fight against this ongoing injustice towards animals, and are making progress, but there is much that remains to be done.

 

Top photo: Thomas Schoch / Wikpedia Commons / “This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.”/ Rhesus macaques at the Red Fort in northern India.

 

Second photo: JayDalal5 / Wikimedia Commons / “This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.” / A rose-ringed parakeet in India, eating fresh leaves.

 

Aiwok / Wikimedia Commons / This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license. / A rhesus macaque with here two babies near the Jakhu Temple in Shimla Himachal Pradesh.