An older world than we thought…

Gobekli Tepe
Gobekli Tepe



Just a few years ago, an amazing complex of structures was discovered in eastern Turkey.  Known as Gobekli Tepe, these are about twenty stone circles – not formed of rough-hewn stone, like Stonehenge, but formed of straight, precisely cut and polished stone columns, with lintels across the top, decorated with animal sculptures.  These have been dated to around 12,000 years ago – thousands of years earlier than any previously known complex of carved structures.


They were apparently covered up by earth a couple of thousand years after they were created.  One can only suppose they were sacred sites and when the people were compelled to leave them, for whatever reason, they covered them up in order to preserve them to avoid having them deteriorate and fall apart over time.


The time that they were created, around 10,000 BC, coincides with the ending of the last Ice Age.


Gobekli Tepe is written about extensively in the book, Forgotten Civilization, by Robert Schoch, a geologist who gained international renown (and some measure of ridicule) for his work with John Anthony West, related to the Sphinx in Egypt, and the hypothesis that the Sphinx is much, much older, by thousands of years, than previously thought.


Dwarkadheesh Temple
Dwarkadheesh Temple


Graham Hancock, another well-known exponent of the concept that there was a high civilization, unknown to us, in the extremely remote past, examines this in his book Underworld, which looks at a number of sites, now underwater, which are evidence of very ancient, unknown civilizations.  His theory is that, because it is an accepted scientific fact that sea levels rose dramatically when the ice melted at the end of the last Ice Age, that the remains of ancient civilizations, which would have been located on what was then the coast, would now be entirely under the sea, often many meters below the surface.  Many of these sites have been found and Graham Hancock has dived some of them – at the island of Malta, Yonaguni which is off the southern coasts of Japan, Dwarka and other sunken cities off the coasts of India. At these and other underwater sites, there are very extensive remains of ancient megalithic structures.


There is growing interest in this concept of lost civilizations – really of a lost history of the world – and an increasing number of writers who investigate this topic.  It is also covered in the TV series, Ancient Aliens. Ancient Aliens leaves itself open to a certain level of ridicule by proposing that really just about everything in the distant past must have been built by ancient aliens who sailed to the planet earth in UFO’s.  This can strain the credibility even of those who have no problem at all believing in either UFO’s or very ancient civilizations.


However, the series does an excellent job of covering a great many really fascinating archeological sites of extreme antiquity, and is very much worth watching solely for the footage of these sites – if one isn’t too much put off be the assumption that ET himself must have built every single pyramid and every ancient ruin.



The throne room of Knossus
The throne room of Knossus



A new series on the H2 Channel is America Unearthed, in which the forensic geologist, Scott Wolter, travels across the U.S. looking into ancient sites on the American continent which indicate that America was discovered, not just by Columbus, and not just by the Vikings around 1,000 AD, as nearly everyone now accepts, but by many peoples from all corners of the world over many thousands of years.  For example, on Great Isle, on Lake Superior, there have been dug around 5,000 pits, used for extracting copper – one of these was dated to 3,700 BC.  The dating was done of cut and shaped timbers that were in place in one of the pits, supporting a large piece of copper.  A stone containing carved letters was found, and these turned out to be the letters of the Minoan script – the Minoans lived on the island of Crete, where, around 3,000 BC and earlier, they had a great need to mine copper to provide metal for the Bronze Age.  Perhaps they sailed all the way to the Great Lakes, and mined the copper that they found there to fuel the Bronze Age.


It seems increasingly clear that history, as we have been taught it, is simply not true.  It is woefully incomplete, and there are vast chapters of the ancient past that are only just beginning to come to light.  Great civilizations, unknown to us, may have extended for millennia back into the mists of time, perhaps other great worldwide civilizations from tens of thousands of years ago – or hundreds of thousands – or who knows?  Perhaps galactic civilizations lasting over billions of years?  If that’s too far-fetched, don’t worry – it was just a fleeting thought.  Even the sites now found from only a few thousand years farther back into the past will be sufficient to radically alter our view of history.


The well-settled world which we thought we knew fifty or sixty years ago – with its carefully defined boundaries and its nicely stable limitations – is not true.  The walls are falling down – all the preconceived notions – of history, of assumptions about the nature of the physical universe, about “reality” – all these are being upended.


This, if you like, is “the end of the world.”  It is the end of our tidy, finite, limited conceptualization of the world.  Concerning physics, it is the end of the Newtonian world.  Concerning history and archaeology, it is the end of history as we have known it.  It is, simply, the end of our human-imposed boundaries.


With string theories and multiple universes, ancient unsuspected high civilizations, with aliens of all sorts, ancient and modern – with everything that we could not previously have imagined, the world we had grown accustomed to has come to a close, the walls have come tumbling down, and a vast multi-verse of unfathomable, mystic realms — of myth and magic — awaits us.


Top photo: Author: Teomancimit / Wikimedia Commons / “This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.” / One of the carved columns at Gobekli Tepe.


Second photo: Author: Scalebelow / Wikimedia Commons / “This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.” / The Dwarakadheesh temple (Dwarakadhish temple/Dwarkadhish temple) at Dwarka, Gujarat, India.  The temple is thought to have been constructed on top of Lord Krishna’s original residential palace, by his grandson, Vajranabha.


Third photo: Author: Chris 73 / Wikimedia Commons /”This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.” / The throne room at the Minoan palace of Knossus on Crete.


To watch a video showing the ruins of Dwarka, off the west coast of India, click here.  (This is from the H2 program Ancient Aliens, but don’t let the ancient aliens distract you one way or the other; the relevant point here is to show you the ancient ruins.)



To watch the full episode of America Unearthed, “Great Lakes Copper Heist”, click here.






Underworld and ancient Indian cities

The book, Underworld, the Mysterious Origins of Civilization, by Graham Hancock, has some fascinating chapters about Dwarka, in the state of Gujarat on the Kathiawar Peninsula by the Arabian Sea. There, a team of marine archaeologists, led by S. R. Rao, discovered a very large submerged site. Dr. Rao has led excavations of a vast number of important Indian sites, including many Indus Valley sites.


Graham Hancock and his wife, Santha, traveled there in 1992. Though British, he was not a stranger to India, having spent part of his childhood in Vellore, in Tamil Nadu. Santha’s family background is Tamil.


Hancock describes the Indian concept of cyclical time and the four yugas or four ages: the Krita Yuga, which is the “golden” age; the Treta Yuga, in which virtue has begun to decline and is less perfect than before; the Davapara Yuga, in which there is dishonesty and conflict; and the current age, the Kali Yuga, which is the worst of all, where there is much evil, and humanity approaches its destruction.


The destruction will not be final though, since the cycles will begin again. Also, according to some authorities, the Kali Yuga may last for 432,000 years, so many believe that its end may not happen for a while yet.


Near the end of the Davapara Yuga, the age before this one, the city of Dwarka, which appears in ancient Hindu writings, was a splendid city, ruled by Krishna, the avatar of Lord Vishnu.


Dwarka had been built on land reclaimed from the ocean – on the same site as an earlier city, Kususthali.


As the Davapara Yuga ended, Krishna was killed.  He was slain by an arrow shot by Jara, which means Old Age, so perhaps he simply died of old age.  On the same day that Krishna died, the Davapara Age ended, and the Kali Yuga began.  At this time, the seas rose, engulfing the city of Dwarka.


Traditionally, the Kali Yuga is said to have begun at 3102 BC, but there is more than one opinion about this, and various systems of reckoning.


Hancock writes that it was around this date that the Indus Valley civilization began.  Its two most well-known sites are the cities Mohenjodaro and Harappa, but there were many hundreds of cities dotted throughout the Indus Valley and along the Saraswati River to the east. The Saraswati later disappeared and went underground.  This civilization, now known as the Indus-Saraswati civilization, covered an enormous area, 1.5 million square kilometers (580,000 square miles), from Iran to Kashmir, to the Godavari Valley in the south, past Delhi in the east — an area larger than western Europe.


The larger cities, like Mohenjodaro and Haappa, were laid out according to a planned grid, with two and three story buildings, with street lights provided by lanterns in the walls, a garbage collection system, and complex plumbing and sewage systems.  Mohenjodaro may have had as many as 150,000 inhabitants.


Their system of weights and measure indicates an advanced knowledge of mathematics.  They produced bronze that was as hard as steel, and no one today is sure how that was done.


Hancock points out, as many others have also noted, that cities of this level of sophistication could not have arisen out of nowhere.  There must have been a developmental phase.

For many years, the origins of this great civilization presented a mystery to archaeologists.


In 1974, Jean-Francois Jarrige, a French archaeologist, began excavations at a site called Mehrgarh, in Pakistan.  Mehrgarh contains levels of continuous occupation extending from 6,800 BC until the end of the Indus-Saraswati civilization in the second millennium BC.  In other words, it existed for 4 or 5,000 years of continuing habitation.  Not only that, but nearby sites have been discovered that are just as old.  These extremely ancient cities must have been the antecedents of the Indus-Saraswati cities.


On his 1992 trip to see these sites, Graham Hancock took some time to visit a number of other cities in India and neighboring countries. Having located the texts of the Vedas and other early sacred Sanskrit texts, in a bookstore, on a side trip to Nepal, he expressed the view that he no longer considers the books from ancient Egypt and Sumer to be the oldest in the world, but has concluded that the earliest Sanskrit texts predated those by several thousand years.


There is much, much more in this amazing book, Underworld, which I read several years ago, and return to often.  Not all about India, the book covers a great many really ancient civilizations  — and there is a central theme – that many of the oldest great civilizations were far older than we realize.  Almost incomprehensibly older; Hancock suggests that they may extend back 11 or 12,000 thousand years ago, to the ending of the last Ice Age, when the whole world was flooded as the seas rose from the global melting of the ice.


This event would be the source of all the flood myths found in diverse cultures the world over.  Although civilization is not thought by most authorities to be nearly as old as this, new discoveries keep emerging.  If Graham Hancock’s hypothesis is correct, many of these ancient civilizations lie underneath the sea, and under the sea is where many intriguing remains of ancient sites have been discovered in recent years.


Top photo: Miskin / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain / about 1600 / the city of Dwarka

Second photo: Comrogues from San Francisco, California / Wikimedia Commons / This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. / Mohenjodaro