Xuanzang (Hsüan-tsang) (c. 602 – 664)

Makarand R. ParanjapeThough the conquest of Delhi by Muhammad Ghori in 1192 is considered a historical watershed, Indic civilisation had already been under continuous attack for over 600 years, from the time of the Umayyad Caliphate. One wonders what the scholars, teachers, intellectuals, not just the kings, courtiers and soldiers were doing during [this] half-millennium. They had no effective answer to such repeated and devastating assaults. This was as much an intellectual and academic as it was a military or political failure. – Prof Makarand Paranjape

As we saw in the previous column, the foundation of the Nalanda International University may be attributed to the “bhadra vichara” (noble idea) of former president of India, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. He proposed it on 28 March 2006 in the Bihar assembly. This university is now, thankfully, a reality. It came into existence on 25 November 2010 through a special act of Parliament. Today…

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